DA Most Progressive Party in the World – the Importance of Gender and Race in Political Leadership

*Disclaimer: This article does not in any way represent the political affiliations of Safro, it is merely a collection of interesting and exciting facts that together seek to praise South Africa, through one of its political parties, for achieving another world first.

THE OBAMA OF SOWETO – this is the American-centric comparison that would dog Mmusi Maimane in his recent political career, from his campaign for premiership in the Gauteng to his eventual election as the new leader of the Democratic Alliance on the 10th of May 2015. While the charismatic Maimane has certainly not been discrete in taking leaves from Obama’s campaign manual, the likenesses between the  two men have now been further cemented in that both are the first black leaders to be elected to head political parties’ whose leadership historically has been about as colourful as a pitcher of milk. However, the South African politician does best his American counterpart in terms of novelty by succeeding someone not only of a different race, but also of a different gender.

Gender and race, especially race, are important and often provocative points of discussion for many South Africans. Not surprising since our sunny shores host a veritable potjie of racial and ethnic diversity – the eighth most diverse in the world in fact. Racial integration and equalisation through legislation remain sensitive topics for advocates on all sides, the legacy of apartheid serving as ample source of fuel for heated debates across racial and socio-economic divides.  The promotion of women and female interests in South Africa, although lagging, is thankfully not as contentious an issue and partial successes, at least legislatively, have been achieved since the end of apartheid – as of the beginning of 2015 our parliament boasts the 10th highest representation of women in the world, although at 41.5% it still remains far from being truly representative of a national demographic that constitutes a child bearing majority (51%). In 2013, 20% more females were registered to vote than males. Accordingly the importance of progressive leadership choices capturing both gender and racial diversity should be obvious for any South African political party, yet it took 21 years of democracy and five national elections for any major party to change both the gender and the race of its party leader. The Democratic Alliance achieved a first in South African political history on the 10th of May when Mmusi Maimane took the reins of leadership from Helen Zille.

And yet, in the year 2015 it would seem that it is also the only party in the world to have done so.

An independent study of the racial and gender changes in the leadership of 529 major political parties across 99 democratic countries, between 1994 and 2015, shows the following: Only 95 (17%) of those political parties have had a change in the gender of the person in the top position of their party since 1994. Most of these parties (79%) are found in Western countries such as in Europe, North America and Australasia.  On the other hand only five political parties (1%), besides the DA, have in the previous 21 years had an obvious change in race of their leaders. These include the Mauritian Militant Movement (Mauritius), Democratic Party (USA), Free Democratic Party (Germany), United Democratic Party (Belize) and the Green Party (New Zealand). However, none of these parties have also had a change in the gender of their leaders, besides the Green Party in New Zealand which technically has had both a change in race and gender, but their party structure mandates a dual-gender chairpersonship, meaning that both genders must be represented in the top position at any time, therefore it does not practically represent an actual change in the gender of leadership. Otherwise,  the only other political party that has come close to what the DA has accomplished is Bloc Quebecois (Canada) who in 2011 would have checked both boxes with Vivian Barbot, but unfortunately she would only serve as an interim leader, a brief breath of fresh air in the party’s traditional procession of pale males. Thus the DA remains the only political party in the world that has, in the previous 21 years, seen elected leaders of different races as well as of different genders.

And so the new gender and racially diverse DA joins the heart transplant, CAT scan and Kreepy Krauly in the hallowed halls of South African innovations and international firsts. Congratulations to the Mmusi Maimane, the Democratic Alliance and to South Africa – a country that remains interesting, contradictory and a little bit funny at times.

New post articles and infographics added here every Monday, and everywhere else on Tuesday, so follow on facebook or twitter for the latest updates.

Maimanepsd

 


 

The Data

Only countries with multi-party democracies that have existed since 1994 were chosen for this study to ensure a measure of democratic election of leaders within the parties and equal level of political maturity with South African parties. For this purpose Freedom House’s list of electoral democracies in 1993 was used to identify a 102 countries that meet the above criteria.

The CIA world factbook would provide a list of 958 major political parties in the identified countries. Of those, 529 had easily accessible public records on who filled previous leadership positions, thereby making it possible to ascertain the gender and race of the leaders.

Western countries would notably have more accessible records available while, African and South American countries would not.

For a copy of the data used in Excel format or to ask any further questions, please feel free to contact me at safrosite@gmail.com

Country Party Change in leader race since 1994 change in leader gender since 1994 Date established
Albania Christian Democratic Party or PDK [Nard NDOKA N N 1991
Albania Democratic Party or PD [Lulzim BASHA N N 19990
Albania Movement for National Development of LZHK [Dashamir SHEHI U U
Albania Republican Party or PR [Fatmir MEDIU N N 1991
Andorra Citizen’s Party or IC and Independent’s Party [Pere Lopez AGRASI U U
Andorra Democrats for Andorra or DA [Antoni MARTI PETIT N N 2011
Andorra Greens of Andorra or VA [Isabel LOZANO MUNOZ N N 2003
Andorra Liberal Party or PLA [Josep Pintat FORNE N N 1992
Andorra Social Democratic Progress Party or PDS [Victo Naudi ZAMORA U U 2000
Argentina Civic Coalition or CC (a coalition loosely affiliated with Elisa CARRIO) n n 2001
Argentina Dissident Peronists (PJ Disidente) or Federal Peronism (a sector of the Justicialist Party opposed to the Kirchners) u u 1947
Argentina Front for Victory or FpV (a broad coalition, including elements of the PJ, UCR, and numerous provincial parties) [Cristina FERNANDEZ DE KIRCHNER n y
Argentina Peronist (or Justicialist) Party or PJ [Eduardo FELLNER u u 2003
Argentina Radical Civic Union or UCR [Ernesto SANZ n u 1947
Argentina Republican Proposal or PRO [Mauricio MACRI n n 1891
Argentina Socialist Party or PS [Hermes BINNER u n 2010
Argentina Renewal Front (Frente Renovador) [Sergio MASSA n u 1896
Australia Australian Greens Party [Christine MILNE N y 1992
Australia Australian Labor Party [Bill SHORTEN N y 1901
Australia Country Liberal Party [Terry MILLS N y 1974
Australia Family First Party [Steve FIELDING u u 2001
Australia Katter’s Australian Party [Bob KATTER U u 2011
Australia Liberal National Party of Queensland [Campbell NEWMAN N N 2008
Australia Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT N N 1945
Australia National Party of Australia [Warren TRUSS N N 1920
Australia Palmer United Party [Clive PALMER N N 2013
Austria Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Josef BUCHER N N 2005
Austria Austrian People’s Party or OeVP [Reinhold MITTERLEHNER N N 1945
Austria Communist Party of Austria or KPOe [Mirko MESSNER N Y 1918
Austria Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE N y 1956
Austria The Greens [Eva GLAWISCHNIG N Y 1986
Austria NEOS – The New Austria [Matthias STROLZ N N 2012
Austria Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Werner FAYMANN N N 1888
Austria “Team Stronach” [Frank STRONACH N N 2012
Bahamas, the Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert MINNIS N N 1971
Bahamas, the Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE U U
Bangladesh Free National Movement or FNM [Hubert MINNIS N N 1971
Bangladesh Progressive Liberal Party or PLP [Perry CHRISTIE U U
Bangladesh Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA U u 1949
Bangladesh Communist Party of Bangladesh or CPB [Manjurul A. KHAN N N 1948
Bangladesh Bangladesh Nationalist Front or BNF [Abdul Kalam AZADI U u
Bangladesh Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA N N 1978
Bangladesh Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh or BDB [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY N N 2004
Bangladesh Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [multiple leaders U U
Bangladesh Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD U U 2001
Bangladesh Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED N N 2006
Bangladesh National Socialist Party or JSD [KHALEQUZZAMAN U U 1972
Bangladesh Tarikat Foundation [Syed Nozibul Bashar MAIZBHANDARI U u
Bangladesh Workers Party or WP [Rashed Khan MENON U U 1980
Barbados Barbados Labor Party or BLP [Owen ARTHUR U U 1938
Barbados Democratic Labor Party or DLP [Freundel STUART U U 1955
Barbados People’s Empowerment Party or PEP [David COMISSIONG N N 2006
Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish or CD&V [Wouter BEKE N Y 2001
Belgium Flemish Liberals and Democrats or Open VLD [Gwendolyn RUTTEN N Y 2007
Belgium Groen! [Meyren ALMACI N Y 1982
Belgium Libertarian, Direct, Democratic or LDD (formerly Dedecker’s List) [Jean-Marie DEDECKER N N 2007
Belgium New Flemish Alliance or N-VA [Bart DE WEVER N N 2001
Belgium People’s Party [Mischael MODRIKAMEN N N 2009
Belgium Social Progressive Alternative or SP.A [Bruno TOBBACK N N 1978
Belgium Vlaams Belang (Flemish Interest) or VB [Tom VAN GRIEKEN N N 2004
Belgium Ecolo (Francophone Greens) [Patrick DUPRIEZ and Zakia KHATTABI U U 1980
Belgium Francophone Federalist Democrats or FDF [Olivier MAINGAIN U U 1964
Belgium Humanist and Democratic Center or CDH [Benoit LUTGEN U u
Belgium People’s Party [Mischael MODRIKAMEN N N 2009
Belgium Reform Movement or MR [Olivier CHASTEL U U
Belgium Socialist Party or PS [Elio DI RUPO N N 1978
Belgium Workers’ Party [Peter Mertens N N 1979
Belize National Alliance for Belizean Rights or NABR N N 1998
Belize National Reform Party or NRP [Cornelius DUECK U U
Belize People’s National Party or PNP [Wil MAHEIA N N 2007
Belize People’s United Party or PUP [John BRICENO N N 1950
Belize United Democratic Party or UDP [Dean Oliver BARROW Y N 1973
Belize Vision Inspired by the People or VIP [Paul MORGAN N N 2005
Belize We the People Reform Movement or WTP [Hipolito BAUTISTA N N 2003
Benin African Movement for Democracy and Progress or MADEP [Sefou FAGBOHOUN];; Force N N 2003
Benin Alliance of Progress Forces or AFP U U
Benin Benin Renaissance or RB [Rosine SOGLO]; N N
Benin Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Adrien HOUNGBEDJI]; N N 1990
Benin Cowrie for an Emerging Benin or FCBE [Yayi BONI]; N N
Benin Impulse for Progress and Democracy or IPD [Theophile NATA]; U U
Bolivia Bacada Indigena or BI U U
Bolivia Fearless Movement or MSM [Juan DE GRANADO Cosio N N 1999
Bolivia Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Juan Evo MORALES Ayma N N 1998
Bolivia National Unity or UN [Samuel DORIA MEDINA Arana N N 2003
Bolivia People or Gente [Roman LOAYZA U U
Bolivia Social Democratic Movement or MDS [Ruben COSTAS N N 2013
Botswana Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO n n u
Botswana Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO N N 1998
Botswana Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA N N 1966
Botswana Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATLHE N N 2010
Botswana Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO N N 1965
Botswana Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI U U 1960
Brazil Brazilian Communist Party or PCB [Ivan Martins PINHEIRO N N 1922
Brazil Brazilian Democratic Movement Party or PMDB [Michel TEMER U U 1981
Brazil Brazilian Labor Party or PTB [Cristiane BRASIL N N 1981
Brazil Brazilian Renewal Labor Party or PRTB [Jose Levy FIDELIX da Cruz U U
Brazil Brazilian Republican Party or PRB [Marcos Antonio PEREIRA N N 2005
Brazil Brazilian Social Democracy Party or PSDB [Aecio NEVES N N 1988
Brazil Brazilian Socialist Party or PSB U U 1947
Brazil Christian Labor Party or PTC [Daniel TOURINHO U U 1985
Brazil Christian Social Democratic Party or PSDC [Jose Maria EYMAEL U U 1995
Brazil Communist Party of Brazil or PCdoB [Jose Renato RABELO U U 1962
Brazil Democratic Labor Party or PDT [Carlos Roberto LUPI U U 1979
Brazil The Democrats or DEM [Jose AGRIPINO U U 2007
Brazil Free Homeland Party or PPL [Sergio RUBENS n u 2007
Brazil Green Party or PV [Jose Luiz PENNA u n 2009
Brazil Humanist Party of Solidarity or PHS [Eduardo MACHADO u u 1986
Brazil Labor Party of Brazil or PTdoB [Luis Henrique de Oliveira RESENDE u u 1997
Brazil National Ecologic Party or PEN [Adilson Barroso OLIVEIRA n u 1989
Brazil National Labor Party or PTN [Jose Masci de ABREU u n 2012
Brazil National Mobilization Party or PMN [Oscar Noronha FILHO u u 1945
Brazil Party of the Republic or PR [Alfredo NASCIMENTO u u 1984
Brazil Popular Socialist Party or PPS [Roberto Joao Pereira FREIRE u u 2006
Brazil Progressive Party or PP [Ciro NOGUEIRA u u 1992
Brazil Progressive Republican Party or PRP [Ovasco Roma Altimari RESENDE u u 2003
Brazil Social Christian Party or PSC [Vitor Jorge Abdala NOSSEIS u u 1991
Brazil Social Democratic Party or PSD [Gilberto KASSAB u u
Brazil Social Liberal Party or PSL [Luciano Caldas BIVAR u u
Brazil Socialism and Freedom Party or PSOL [Luiz ARAUJO u u
Brazil United Socialist Workers’ Party or PSTU [Jose Maria DE ALMEIDA u u
Brazil Workers’ Cause Party or PCO [Rui Costa PIMENTA u u
Brazil Workers’ Party or PT [Rui FALCAO n u
Bulgaria Alternative for Bulgarian Revival or ABV [Georgi PARVANOV N N 2014
Bulgaria Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV N N 2005
Bulgaria Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Mihail MIKOV N N 1990
Bulgaria Bulgaria of the Citizens or DBG [Meglena KUNEVA N N 2012
Bulgaria Bulgaria Without Censorship or BBTs [Nikolay BAREKOV N N 2014
Bulgaria Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV N N 2006
Bulgaria Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Radan KANEV U U
Bulgaria IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV N N 1999
Bulgaria Movement for Rights and Freedoms or DPS [Lyutvi MESTAN U U 1990
Bulgaria National Front for the Salvation of Bulgaria or NFSB [Valeri SIMEONOV N N 2011
Bulgaria National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA N Y 2001
Bulgaria Order, Law, and Justice or RZS [Yane YANEV U U 2005
Bulgaria Patriotic Front or PF (alliance of IMRO-BNM and NFSB) N N 2014
Bulgaria Union of Democratic Forces or SDS [Bozhidar LUKARSKI N Y 1989
Canada Bloc Quebecois [Mario BEAULIEU n y 1991
Canada Conservative Party of Canada [Stephen HARPER N N 2003
Canada Green Party [Elizabeth MAY N Y 1983
Canada Liberal Party [Justin TRUDEAU 1867
Canada New Democratic Party or NDP [Thomas MULCAIR N Y 1961
Cayman Islands People’s Progressive Movement or PPM [Kurt TIBBETTS n n 2002
Cayman Islands United Democratic Party or UDP [McKeeva BUSH u u
Central African Republic Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP [Clement BELIBANGA u u 1991
Central African Republic Central African Democratic Rally or RDC [Louis-Pierre GAMBA u u 1986
Central African Republic Civic Forum or FC u u 1991
Central African Republic Democratic Forum for Modernity or FODEM [Saturnin NDOMBY n n 1997
Central African Republic Liberal Democratic Party or PLD u u 1991
Central African Republic Londo Association or LONDO n n 2005
Central African Republic Movement for Democracy and Development or MDD n n 1993
Central African Republic Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People or MLPC [Martin ZIGUELE n n 1978
Central African Republic National Convergence or KNK [Francois BOZIZE n n 1993
Central African Republic National Unity Party or PUN u u 1997
Central African Republic New Alliance for Progress or NAP [Jean-Jacques DEMAFOUTH u u
Central African Republic Patriotic Front for Progress or FPP [Alexandre Philippe GOUMBA u u 1993
Central African Republic People’s Union for the Republic or UPR [Pierre Sammy MAKFOY u u 1998
Central African Republic Social Democratic Party or PSD [Enoch LAKOUE n n 1993
Chile Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain n n 2008
Chile Citizen Left or IC n n 2012
Chile Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena n n 2009
Chile Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle n y 1922
Chile Ecological Green Party [Cristian VILLAROEL Novoa u u 2008
Chile Equality Party [Lautaro GUANCA Vallejos n y 2009
Chile Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE Reyes u u 1984
Chile Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Ernesto SILVA n n 1983
Chile Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Carlos OLIVARES Zepeda n n 2006
Chile Liberal Party [Vlado MIROSEVIC u u 2007
Chile National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN n n 1987
Chile Progressive Party or PRO [Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI Gumucio n n 2010
Colombia Alternative Democratic Pole or PDA [Clara LOPEZ u u 2005
Colombia Conservative Party or PC [Omar YEPES Alzate u u 1849
Colombia Democratic Center Party or CD [Alvaro URIBE Velez n n 2013
Colombia Green Party [Alfonso PRADA n n 2005
Colombia Liberal Party or PL [Simon GAVIRIA Munoz u u 1984
Colombia National Integration Party or PIN [Angel ALIRIO Moreno n n 2009
Colombia Radical Change or CR [Carlos Fernando GALAN u u 1998
Colombia Social National Unity Party or U Party [Sergio Diaz GANADOS n n 2005
Congo, The Republic of Action Movement for Renewal or MAR n n
Congo, The Republic of Congolese Labour Party or PCT n n 1969
Congo, The Republic of Congolese Movement for Democracy and Integral Development or MCDDI [Michel MAMPOUYA n n 1989
Congo, The Republic of Movement for Solidarity and Development or MSD u u u
Congo, The Republic of Pan-African Union for Social Development or UPADS [Martin MBERI n n 1991
Congo, The Republic of Rally for Democracy and the Republic or RDR [Raymond Damasge NGOLLO n n 2003
Congo, The Republic of Rally for Democracy and Social Progress or RDPS [Jean-Pierre Thystere TCHICAYA, president n n 1990
Congo, The Republic of Rally of the Presidential Majority or RMP u u
Congo, The Republic of Union for Democracy and Republic or UDR n n 1992
Costa Rica Accessibility Without Exclusion or PASE [Oscar Andres LOPEZ Arias n n 2010
Costa Rica Broad Front (Frente Amplio) or PFA [Ana Patricia MORA u u 2004
Costa Rica Citizen Action Party or PAC [Olivier PEREZ Gonzalez n n 2000
Costa Rica Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez u u 1995
Costa Rica Libertarian Movement Party or ML [Victor Danilo CUBERO Corrales u u 1994
Costa Rica National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes n n 1998
Costa Rica National Liberation Party or PLN [Bernal JIMENEZ u u 1951
Costa Rica National Restoration Party or PRN [Carlos AVENDANO u u 2005
Costa Rica Patriotic Alliance [Jorge ARAYA Westover u u
Costa Rica Popular Vanguard [Humberto VARGAS u u 1931
Costa Rica Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Gerardo VARGAS u u 1977
Croatia Bosniak Democratic Party of Croatia or BDSH [Medzad HODZIC u u
Croatia Croatian Civic Party or HGS [Zeljko KERUM n n 2009
Croatia Croatian Democratic Congress of Slavonia and Baranja or HDSSB [Dragan VULIN n n 2
Croatia Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Tomislav KARAMARKO n y 1989
Croatia Croatian Laborists – Labor Party [Nansi TIRELI u u 1999
Croatia Croatian Party of Rights – dr. Ante Starcevic or HSP AS [Ivan TEPES n n 1990
Croatia Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Branko HRG n n 1904
Croatia Croatian Pensioner Party or HSU [Silvano HRELJA n n 1996
Croatia Croatian People’s Party – Liberal Democrats or HNS [Vesna PUSIC n y 1990
Croatia Croatian Pure Party of Rights or HCSP [Josip MILJIC u u 1992
Croatia Democratic Centre or DC [Vesna SKARE-OZBOLT n n 2000
Croatia Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC n n 1997
Croatia Independent List of Ivan Grubisic [Ivan GRUBISIC n n
Croatia Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Boris MILETIC u u 1990
Croatia New Wave [Liubo JURCIC u u
Croatia Reformists Party [Radimir CACIC n n 2014
Croatia Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Zoran MILANOVIC n n 1990
Croatia Sustainable Development for Croatia or ORaH [Mirela HOLY n n 2013
Cyprus Citizens’ Alliance or SP [Giorgos LILLIKAS u u
Cyprus Democratic Party or DIKO [Nicolas PAPADOPOULOS n n 1976
Cyprus Democratic Rally or DISY [Averof NEOPHYTOU (Neofytou) u u 1976
Cyprus Ecological and Environmental Movement or KOP (Green Party) [Giorgos PERDIKIS u u 1996
Cyprus European Party or EVROKO [Dimitris SYLLOURIS u u 2005
Cyprus Movement of Social Democrats or KS-EDEK [Marinos SIZOPOULOS u u 1978
Cyprus National Popular Front or ELAM [Christos CHRISTOU u u 2008
Cyprus Progressive Party of the Working People or AKEL (Communist Party) [Andros KYPRIANOU n n 1926
Cyprus United Democrats or EDI [Praxoula ANTONIADOU n y 1993
Cyprus Communal Democracy Party or TDP [Cemal OZYIGIT u u 2007
Czech Republic Citizens for Budejovice or HOPB [Juraj THOMA u u
Czech Republic Civic Democratic Party or ODS [Petr FIALA n n 1991
Czech Republic Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia or KSCM [Vojtech FILIP n n 1989
Czech Republic Czech Social Democratic Party or CSSD [Bohuslav SOBOTKA n n 1878
Czech Republic Dawn of Direct Democracy or Usvit [Tomio OKAMURA n n 2013
Czech Republic Green Party or SZ [Jana DRAPALOVA u u 1989
Czech Republic Mayors and Independents or STAN [Martin PUTA u u 2004
Czech Republic Mayors for Liberec Region or SLK [Marek PIETER u u
Czech Republic Movement of Dissatisfied Citizens or ANO [Andrej BABIS n n 2012
Czech Republic North Bohemians or S.cz [Bronislav SCHWARZ u u
Czech Republic Party of Civic Rights or SPO [Jan VELEBA n n 2009
Czech Republic Tradition Responsibility Prosperity 09 or TOP 09 [Karel SCHWARZENBERG n n 2009
Czech Republic Czech Pirate Party [Lukas CERNOHORSKY n n 2009
Czech Republic Free Citizens Party or Svobodni [Petr MACH n n 2009
Czech Republic Liberal Reform Party or Ostravak [Eva SCHWARZOVA u u
Denmark Conservative People’s Party or C [Soren PAPE POULSEN n y 1915
Denmark Danish People’s Party or O [Kristian THULESEN DAHL n y 1995
Denmark Liberal Alliance or I [Anders SAMUELSEN n n 2007
Denmark Liberal Party or V [Lars LOKKE RAMUSSEN n n 1910
Denmark Social Democratic Party or A [Helle THORNING-SCHMIDT n y 1871
Denmark Social Liberal Party or B [Morten OSTERGAAR n y 1905
Denmark Socialist People’s Party or F [Pia OLSEN DYHR n y 1959
Dominica Dominica Freedom Party or DFP [Judith PESTAINA n n 1968
Dominica Dominica Labor Party or DLP [Roosevelt SKERRIT u u 1955
Dominica Dominica United Workers Party or UWP [Hector JOHN n n 1988
Dominican Republic Dominican Liberation Party or PLD [Leonel FERNANDEZ Reyna u u 1973
Dominican Republic Dominican Revolutionary Party or PRD [Miguel VARGAS Maldonado u u 1939
Dominican Republic National Progressive Force [Vinicio CASTILLO, Pelegrin CASTILLO n n 1980
Dominican Republic Social Christian Reformist Party or PRSC [Carlos MORALES Troncoso n n 1963
Ecuador Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado n n 2006
Ecuador Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ u u
Ecuador Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO n n 2012
Ecuador Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA n n 1998
Ecuador Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI n n 1996
Ecuador Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua n n 2002
Ecuador Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS u u 1978
Ecuador Roldosist Party or PRE n n 1982
Ecuador Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO u u 1951
Ecuador Socialist Party [Fabian SOLANO u u
Ecuador Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS u u
Ecuador Warrior’s Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT u u
El Salvador Democratic Change (Cambio Democratico) or CD [Douglas AVILES u u 2005
El Salvador Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front or FMLN [Medardo GONZALEZ u u 1980
El Salvador National Coalition (Concertation Nacional) or CN [Manuel RODRIGUEZ n n 2011
El Salvador Nationalist Republican Alliance or ARENA [Jorge VELADO u u 1981
El Salvador Party of Hope or PES [Rodolfo Antonio PARKER Soto n n 2011
Estonia Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) or K [Edgar SAVISAAR n n 1991
Estonia Estonian Conservative People’s Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Mart HELME n n 2012
Estonia Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) or RE [Taavi ROIVAS n n 1994
Estonia Free Party or EV [Andres HERKEL n n 2014
Estonia Social Democratic Party or SDE [Sven MIKSER n n 1990
Estonia Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) or IRL [Urmas REINSALU n n 2006
Fiji FijiFirst [Aiyaz SAYED-KHAIYUM n n 2014
Fiji Fiji Labor Party or FLP [Mahendra CHAUDHRY n n 1985
Fiji Fiji United Freedon Party or FUFP [Jagath KARUNARATNE u u
Fiji National Federation Party or NFP [Dalip KUMAR u u 1968
Fiji Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Adi Sivia QORO u u
Fiji Social Democratic Liberal Party or SODELPA [Pio TABAIWALU n n 2013
Finland Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA n y 1906
Finland Christian Democrats or KD [Paivi RASANEN n y 1958
Finland Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO n y 1987
Finland Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI n y 1990
Finland National Coalition Party or Kok [Alexander STUBB n n 1918
Finland Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antii RINNE n y 1899
Finland Swedish People’s Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND n n 1906
Finland The Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI n n 1995
France Europe Ecology – The Greens or EELV [Emmanuelle COSSE N Y 2010
France French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT N Y 1920
France Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON N N 2008
France Left Party or PG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Martine BILLARD 2009
France Left Radical Party or PRG [Jean-Michel BAYLET N N 1998
France Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS N N 1994
France National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN N Y 1972
France New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN U U 2009
France New Center or NC [Herve MORIN U U
France Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO N Y 1901
France Rally for France or RPF [Charles PASQUA N N 1999
France Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT N N 2003
France Socialist Party or PS [Haerlem DESIR N Y 1969
France Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Louis BORLOO N N 2012
France Union for a Popular Movement or UMP [Nicolas SARKOZY 2002
France United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN N N 2010
France Worker’s Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAQUILLER U U
Gambia, The Alliance for Patriotic Reorientation and Construction or APRC [Yahya JAMMEH n n 1996
Gambia, The Gambia Party fo Democracry and Progress or GPDP [Henry GOMEZ n n
Gambia, The National Alliance for Democracy and Development or NADD [Halifa SALLAH u u
Gambia, The National Convention Party or NCP [Sheriff DIBBA u u
Gambia, The National Reconciliation Party or NRP [Hamat BAH u u
Gambia, The People’s Democratic Organization for Independence and Socialism or PDOIS [Halifa SALLAH u u
Gambia, The People’s Progressive Party or PPP [Omar JALLOW u u 1959
Gambia, The United Democratic Party or UDP [Ousainou DARBOE u u 1996
Georgia Alliance of Patriots [Irma INASHVILI u u
Georgia Conservative Party [Zviad DZIDZIGURI n n 2001
Georgia European Democrats [Paata DAVITAIA n n 2005
Georgia Free Georgia [Kakha KUKAVA n n 2010
Georgia Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Irakli GARIBASHVILI n n 2012
Georgia Georgian People’s Front [Nodar NATADZE n n 1989
Georgia Georgian Troupe [Jondi BAGHTURIA u u 2007
Georgia Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Giorgi TOPADZE n n 1999
Georgia Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI n n 1995
Georgia National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA u u
Georgia National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA n n 2006
Georgia New Rights [Pikria CHIKHRADZE n n 2001
Georgia Our Georgia-Free Democrats (OGFD) [Irakli ALASANIA n n 2009
Georgia People’s Party [Koba DAVITASHVILI u u
Georgia Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE u u 1978
Georgia Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI u u
Georgia United Democratic Movement [Nino BURJANADZE n n 2008
Georgia United National Movement or UNM [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI n n 2001
Germany Alliance ’90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER U u 1993
Germany Alternative for Germany or AfD [Bernd LUCKE N y 2013
Germany Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER N n 1945
Germany Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER Y N 1948
Germany Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER N N 2005
Germany Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL U U 1875
Gibraltar Gibraltar Liberal Party [Joseph GARCIA n n 1991
Gibraltar Gibraltar Social Democrats or GSD [Daniel FEETHAM n n 1989
Gibraltar Gibraltar Socialist Labor Party or GSLP [Fabian PICARDO n n 1978
Gibraltar Progressive Democratic Party [Nick CRUZ n n 2006
Greece Coalition of the Radical Left or SYRIZA [Alexis TSIPRAS n n 2012
Greece Communist Party of Greece or KKE [Dimitris KOUTSOUMBAS n y 1918
Greece Golden Dawn [Nikolaos MICHALOLIAKOS n n 1985
Greece Independent Greeks or ANEL [Panagiotis (Panos) KAMMENOS n n 2012
Greece Movement of Democratic Socialists or KIDISO [George PAPANDREOU u u 2015
Greece New Democracy or ND [Antonis SAMARAS n n 1974
Greece Panhellenic Socialist Movement-Democratic Alignment or PASOK-DP [Evangelos VENIZELOS u u
Greece Popular Orthodox Rally or LAOS [Georgios KARATZAFERIS n n 2000
Greece Teleia (Full Stop) [Apostolos GKLETSOS u u
Greece To Potami (The River) [Stavros THEODORAKIS n n 2014
Greece Union of Centrists or EK [Vassilis LEVENTIS n n 1992
Grenada Grenada United Labor Party or GULP [Wilfred HAYES u u 1950
Grenada National Democratic Congress or NDC [Tillman THOMAS n n 1987
Grenada New National Party or NNP [Keith MITCHELL n n 1984
Guatemala Commitment, Renewal, and Order or CREO [Roberto GONZALEZ Diaz-Duran u u
Guatemala Democratic Union or UD [Edwin Armando MARTINEZ Herrera u u 2003
Guatemala Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENEGRO Cottom n n 2007
Guatemala Everyone Together for Guatemala or TODOS [Felipe ALEJOS u u
Guatemala Grand National Alliance or GANA [Jaime Antonio MARTINEZ Lohayza u u 2005
Guatemala Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Angel SANCHEZ Viesca u u 1998
Guatemala Institutional Republican Party (formerly the Guatemalan Republican Front) or PRI [Luis Fernando PEREZ n n 1989
Guatemala National Advancement Party or PAN [Juan GUTIERREZ Strauss u u 1989
Guatemala National Unity for Hope or UNE [Sandra TORRES u u 2002
Guatemala Nationalist Change Union or UCN [Mario ESTRADA u u
Guatemala New National Alternative or ANN [Pablo MONSANTO u u
Guatemala Patriot Party or PP [Ingrid Roxana BALDETTI Elias n n 2001
Guatemala Renewed Democratic Liberty or LIDER [Manuel BALDIZON n n 2010
Guatemala Unionista Party or PU [Alvaro ARZU Irigoyen u u 1920
Guatemala Victoria (Victory) [Amilcar RIVERA u u
Guatemala Vision with Values or VIVA [Harold CABALLEROS u u
Guatemala Winaq [Rigoberta MENCHU u u
Guyana A Partnership for National Unity or APNU [David GRANGER u u
Guyana Alliance for Change or AFC [Khemraj RAMJATTAN n n 2005
Guyana Justice for All Party [C.N. SHARMA u u
Guyana People’s Progressive Party/Civic or PPP/C [Donald RAMOTAR n n 1950
Guyana Rise, Organize, and Rebuild or ROAR [Ravi DEV u u
Guyana The United Force or TUF [Manzoor NADIR u u
Guyana The Unity Party [Joey JAGAN u u
Guyana Vision Guyana [Peter RAMSAROOP u u
Honduras Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA n n 2013
Honduras Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez u u 1968
Honduras Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM u u 1992
Honduras Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales u u
Honduras Liberal Party or PL [Mauricio VILLEDA Bermudez u u 1981
Honduras National Party of Honduras or PNH [Gladys Aurora LOPEZ u u 1902
Honduras Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes u u 1970
Hungary Christian Democratic People’s Party or KDNP [Zsolt SEMJEN n n 1989
Hungary Democratic Coalition or DK [Ferenc GYURCSANY n n 2011
Hungary Dialogue for Hungary or PM [Gergely KARACSONY, Timea SZABO, co-chairs n n 2013
Hungary Fidesz-Hungarian Civic Alliance or Fidesz [Viktor ORBAN n n 1988
Hungary Hungarian Liberal Party or MLP [Gabor FODOR n n 2013
Hungary Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Jozsef TOBIAS n y 1989
Hungary Movement for a Better Hungary or Jobbik [Gabor VONA n n 2003
Hungary Politics Can Be Different or LMP [Andras SCHIFFER, Bernadett SZEL n n 2009
Hungary Together 2014 or Egyutt [Viktor SZIGETVARI n n 2012
Iceland Bright Future (Bjort Framtid) or BF [Gudmundur STEINGRIMSSON n n 2012
Iceland Dawn (Dogun) [Benedikt SIGURDARSON n n 2012
Iceland Independence Party (Sjalfstaedisflokkurinn) or IP [Bjarni BENEDIKTSSON n n 1929
Iceland Left-Green Movement (Vinstrihreyfingin) or LGM [Katrin JAKOBSDOTTIR u u 1999
Iceland Pirate Party [Birgitta JONSDOTTIR n n 2012
Iceland Progressive Party (Framsoknarflokkurinn) or PP [Sigmundur David GUNNLAUGSSON n y 1916
Iceland Rainbow [Bjarni HAROARSON n n 2013
Iceland Social Democratic Alliance (Samfylkingin) or SDA [Arni Pall ARNASON u u 2000
Iceland Solidarity (Samstada) [Lilja MOSESDOTTIR n n 2012
India Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL N N 2012
India All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA N Y 1972
India All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE N n 1998
India Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI N Y 1984
India Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Amit SHAH U U 1980
India Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK U U 1997
India Communist Party of India or CPI [Suravaram Sudhakar REDDY, Secretary-General U U 1925
India Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT N N 1964
India Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI N N 1949
India Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI N Y 1885
India Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN N N 2000
India Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR N N 1999
India Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV N N 1997
India Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH N N 1996
India Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV N N 1992
India Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL N N 1920
India Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY N N 1966
India Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO U U 2001
India Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU N N 1982
India YSR Congress(YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY N N 2009
Ireland Fianna Fail [Micheal MARTIN n n 1926
Ireland Fine Gael [Enda KENNY n n 1933
Ireland Green Party [Eamon RYAN u u 1981
Ireland Labor (Labour) Party [Joan BURTON n y 1912
Ireland Renua Ireland [Lucinda CREIGHTON n n 2015
Ireland Sinn Fein [Gerry ADAMS n n 1970
Ireland Socialist Party [Collective Leadership u u 1996
Ireland The Workers’ Party [Michael DONNELLY n n 1982
Isreal Balad [Jamal ZAHALKA n n 1995
Isreal Democratic Front for Peace and Equality (HADASH) [Muhammad BARAKEH n n 1997
Isreal Kadima [Shaul MOFAZ n n 2005
Isreal Kulanu [Moshe KAHLON n n 2014
Isreal Labor Party [Isaac HERZOG n y 1968
Isreal Likud [Binyamin NETANYAHU n n 1988
Isreal National Union [Uri ARIEL u u 1999
Isreal SHAS [Eliyahu YISHAI u u 1984
Isreal The Jewish Home (Bayit Yehudi) [Naftali BENNETT u u 2008
Isreal The Movement (Hatnuah) [Tzipora “Tzipi” LIVNI n n 2012
Isreal The New Movement-Meretz [Haim ORON n y 1997
Isreal The Zionist Camp (established for March 2015 election purposes) n n 2015
Isreal United Arab List-Ta’al [Ibrahim SARSUR u u
Isreal United Torah Judaism or UTJ [Yaakov LITZMAN u u 1992
Isreal Yesh Atid [Yair LAPID n n 2012
Isreal Yisrael Beiteinu or YB [Avigdor LIEBERMAN u u 1999
Italy Brothers of Italy or FdI [Giorgia MELONI, Ignazio LA RUSSA, and Guido CROSETTO n n 2003
Italy Forza Italia [Silvio BERLUSCONI n n 2012
Italy The New Center-Right or NCD [Angelino ALFANO u n 2013
Italy Northern League or LN [Roberto MARONI n n 2013
Italy The Right or LD [Francesco STORACE n y 2007
Italy Democratic Centre or CD [Bruno TABACCI and Massimo DONADI n n 2012
Italy Democratic Party or PD [Matteo RENZI n n 2007
Italy Left Ecology Freedom or SEL [Nichi VENDOLA n 2010
Italy South Tyrolean People’s Party or SVP [Arno KOMPATSCHER u 1945
Italy Civic Choice or SC [Alberto BOMBASSEI n n 2013
Italy Future and Freedom for Italy or FLI [vacant n n 2010
Italy Union of the Center or UdC [Pier Ferdinando CASINI u
Italy Act to Stop the Decline or FiD [Michele BOLDRIN n n 2012
Italy Civil Revolution or RC [Antonio INGROIA n n 2012
Italy Five Star Movment or M5S [Beppe GRILLO n n 2009
Jamaica Jamaica Labor Party or JLP [Andrew HOLNESS n n 1943
Jamaica People’s National Party or PNP [Portia SIMPSON-MILLER n y 1938
Jamaica National Democratic Movement or NDM [Michael WILLIAMS n n 1995
Japan Democratic Party of Japan or DPJ [Banri KAIEDA n n 1998
Japan Japan Communist Party or JCP [Kazuo SHII u 1922
Japan Japan Innovation Party or JIP [Kenji EDA n n 2014
Japan Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Shinzo ABE n n 1955
Japan New Komeito or NK [Natsuo YAMAGUCHI n n 1998
Japan Party for Future Generations or PFG [Shintaro ISHIHARA n n 2014
Japan People’s Life Party or PLP [Ichiro OZAWA n y 2012
Japan Social Democratic Party or SDP [Tadatomo YOSHIDA n y 1945
Korea, South Justice Party [CHEON Ho-sun n n 2012
Korea, South New Frontier Party (NFP) or Saenuri (formerly Grand National Party) [KIM Moo-sung n y 1997
Korea, South New Politics Alliance for Democracy or NPAD [MOON Jae-in n n 2012
Latvia Alliance of Regions or LRA [Martins BONDARS n n 2014
Latvia For Latvia from the Heart or NSL [Inguna SUDRABA n n 2014
Latvia Social Democratic Party “Harmony” or SC [Janis URBANOVICS n n 2009
Latvia National Alliance “All For Latvia!”-“For Fatherland and Freedom/LNNK” or NA [Gaidis BERZINS, Raivis DZINTARS n n 2010
Latvia Union of Greens and Farmers or ZZS [Raimonds VEJONIS u u 2002
Latvia Unity [Solvita ABOLTINA n n 2010
Lesotho All Basotho Convention or ABC [Motsoahae Thomas THABANE n n 2006
Lesotho Basotho Congress Party or BCP [Thulo MAHLAKENG n u 1952
Lesotho Basotho National Party or BNP [Thesele MASERIBANE u u 1959
Lesotho Democratic Congress or DC [Pakalitha MOSISILI n n 2011
Lesotho Lesotho Congress for Democracy or LCD [Mothetjoa METSING n n 1997
Lesotho Lesotho Peoples Congress or LPC [Molahlehi LETLOTLO n n 2001
Lesotho Marematlou Freedom Party or MFP [Vincent MALEBO u u 1956
Lesotho National Independent Party or NIP [Kimetso MATHABA u u
Lesotho Popular Front for Democracy of PFD [Lekhetho RAKUOANE u u
Lesotho Reformed Congress of Lesotho or RCL [Keketso RANTSO u u
Lichtenstein Fatherland Union (Vaterlaendische Union) or VU [Jakob BUECHEL n n 1936
Lichtenstein Progressive Citizens’ Party (Fortschrittliche Buergerpartei) or FBP [Elfried HASLER u u 1918
Lichtenstein The Free List (Die Freie Liste) or FL [Wolfgang MARXER u u 1985
Lichtenstein the independents (Die Unabhaengigen) or DU [Harry QUADERER n n 2013
Lithuania Christian Party or KP [Gediminas VAGNORIUS n n 2010
Lithuania Democratic Labor and Unity Party or DDVP [Kristina BRAZAUSKIENE u u
Lithuania Electoral Action of Lithuanian Poles or LLRA [Valdemar TOMASEVSKI n n 1994
Lithuania Emigrants Party or EP [Juozas MURAUSKAS u u
Lithuania Homeland Union-Lithuanian Christian Democrats or TS-LKD [Andrius KUBILIUS u u 1993
Lithuania Labor Party or DP [Loreta GRAUZINIENE n y 2003
Lithuania Liberal Movement or LS or LRLS [Eligijus MASIULIS u u 2006
Lithuania Lithuanian People’s Party or LLP [Kazimiera PRUNSKIENE n y 2003
Lithuania Lithuanian People’s Party or LZP [Joana SIMANAUSKIENE u u
Lithuania Lithuanian Russian Union or LRS [Sergejus DMITRIJEVAS u u 1995
Lithuania Lithuanian Social Democratic Party or LSDP [Algirdas BUTKEVICIUS n n 1896
Lithuania Nationalist Union or TS [Julius PANKA u u 1924
Lithuania Order and Justice Party or TT [Rolandas PAKSAS n n 2002
Lithuania Peasant and Greens Union or LVZS [Ramunas KARBAUSKIS n n 2001
Lithuania Republican Party or RP [Valdemaras VALKIUNAS u u
Lithuania Russian Alliance or RA [Tamara LOCHANKINA u u
Lithuania Socialist People’s Front or SLF [Algirdas PALECKIS n n 2009
Lithuania The Union of National Unity or TVS [Algimantas MATULEVICIUS u u
Lithuania Way of Courage or DK [Jonas VARKALA n n 2012
Lithuania YES-Homeland Revival and Perspective or YES Union or TAIP Union or TAIP [Arturas ZUOKAS n n 2011
Lithuania Young Lithuania Party or PJL [Stanislovas BUSKEVICIUS n n 2009
Luxembourg Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Jean SCHOOS n n 1987
Luxembourg Christian Social People’s Party or CSV [Marc SPAUTZ n y 1944
Luxembourg Democratic Party or DP [Xavier BETTEL n y 1955
Luxembourg Green Party [Francoise FOLMER and Christian KMIOTEK u u 1983
Luxembourg Luxembourg Socialist Workers’ Party or LSAP [Claude HAAGEN n n 1945
Luxembourg The Left (dei Lenk/la Gauche) [Serge URBANY u u 1999
Macedonia Citizens Option for Macedonia or GROM [Stevco JAKIMOVSKI n n 2013
Macedonia Democratic Party of Albanians or DPA [Menduh THACI n n 1997
Macedonia Democratic Union for Integration or DUI [Ali AHMETI n n 2001
Macedonia Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization – Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity or VMRO-DPMNE [Nikola GRUEVSKI u u 1983
Macedonia National Democratic Revival or NDR [Rufi OSMANI n n 2011
Macedonia Social Democratic Union of Macedonia or SDSM [Zoran ZAEV n y 1991
Madagascar AVANA Party [Jean-Louis ROBINSON u u
Madagascar Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery/LEADER Fanilo or LF [Manasse ESOAVELOMANDROSO n n 1992
Madagascar Green Party/Parti Vert or AMHM [Sarah Georget RABEHARISOA u u
Madagascar National Unity, Freedom, and Development or FFF [Andriamparany Benjamin RADAVIDSON u u
Madagascar New Force for Madagascar or FIDIO [Hery RAJAONARIMAMPIANINA u u
Madagascar Parti Hiaraka Isika or PHI [Albert Camille VITAL u u
Madagascar Party of Andry Rajoelina or MPAR [Andry RAJOELINA u u
Madagascar Pillar of Madagascar or AIM [Andry RAKOTOVAO u u
Madagascar Ravlomanana Movement or MR [Marc RAVALOMANANA u u
Madagascar Sambo Fiaran’i Noe or SFN u u
Madagascar Union Party or Tambatra [Pety RAKOTONIAINA u u
Madagascar Vondrona Politika Miara dia Malagasy Miara Miainga or VPM MMM [Milavonjy ANDRIASY u u
Mali African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, Secretary General n n 1996
Mali Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Dionconda TRAORE u u 1990
Mali Alternative Forces for Renewal and Emergence or FARE [Modibo SIDIBE n n 2013
Mali Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO u u
Mali Economic and Social Development Party or PDES [Jamille BITTAR u u
Mali Movement for a Common Destiny or MODEC [Koniba SIDIBE u u
Mali National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL n n 1990
Mali Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE u u
Mali Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME n n 1995
Mali Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel Kokalla MAIGA n n 1995
Mali Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU u u
Mali Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA n n 2001
Mali Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Tieman Hubert COULIBALY u u
Mali Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Younoussi TOURE n n 2003
Malta Alternativa Demokratika/Alliance for Social Justice or AD (Green Party) [Arnold CASSOLA n n 1989
Malta Labor Party or PL [Joseph MUSCAT n n 1920
Malta Nationalist Party or PN [Simon BUSUTTIL n n 1880
Mauritius Labor Party (Parti Travailliste) or PTR or MLP [Navinchandra RAMGOOLAM n n 1936
Mauritius Mauritian Militant Movement (Mouvement Militant Mauricien) or MMM [Paul BERENGER y n 1969
Mauritius Mauritian Social Democratic Party (Parti Mauricien Social Democrate) or PMSD [Xavier Luc DUVAL u u 1955
Mauritius Mauritian Solidarity Front (Front Solidarite Mauricienne) or FSM [Cehi FAKEERMEEAH u u 1990
Mauritius Militant Socialist Movement (Mouvement Socialist Mauricien) or MSM [Pravind JUGNAUTH n n 1983
Mauritius Muvman Liberator or ML [Ivan COLLENDAVELLOO n n 2014
Mauritius Rodrigues Peoples Organization (Organisation du Peuple Rodriguais) or OPR [Serge CLAIR u u
Monaco Horizon Monaco [Laurent NOUVION u u
Monaco Renaissance [SBM (public corporation) n n
Monaco Union Monegasque [Stephane VALERI u u
Mongolia Civil Will-Green Party or CWGP [Sanjaasuren OYUN n n 2012
Mongolia Democratic Party or DP [Zandaakhuu ENKHBOLD n n 2000
Mongolia Mongolian National Democratic Party or MNDP [Mendsaikhan ENKHSAIKHAN n n 2005
Mongolia Mongolian People’s Party or MPP [Miyegombo ENKHBOLD n n 1921
Mongolia Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party or MPRP [Nambar ENKHBAYAR n n 2011
Namibia All People’s Party or APP [Ignatius SHIXWAMENI n n 2008
Namibia Communist Party of Namibia or CPN [Attie BEUKES and Harry BOESAK n n 1989
Namibia Democratic Turnhalle Alliance of Namibia or DTA [McHenry VENAANI n n 1977
Namibia National Unity Democratic Organization or NUDO [Kuaima RIRUAKO u u
Namibia Rally for Democracy and Progress or RDP [Hidipo HAMUTENYA n n 2007
Namibia South West Africa National Union or SWANU [Usutuaije MAAMBERUA n n 1959
Namibia South West Africa People’s Organization or SWAPO [Hifikepunye POHAMBA n n 1960
Namibia United Democratic Front or UDF [Justus //GAROEB n n 1989
Namibia United People’s Movement or UPM [Jan J. VAN WYK u u
Nauru Democratic Party [Kennan ADEANG u u
Nauru Nauru First (Naoero Amo) Party u u
Nepal Akhanda Nepal Party [Kumar KHADKA u u
Nepal Communist Party of Nepal-Marxist Leninist [C.P. MAINALI u u
Nepal Communist Party of Nepal-Unified Marxist-Leninist or UML [Jhalanath KHANAL u u 1991
Nepal Communist Party of Nepal (United) [Chandra Dev JOSHI n n 2007
Nepal Dalit Janajati Party [Bishwendra PASHWAN u u
Nepal Federal Socialist Party [Ashok RAI n n 2012
Nepal Jana Jagaran Party Nepal [Lok Mani DHAKAL n n
Nepal Khambuwan Rastriya Morcha-Nepal [Ram Kumar RAI u u
Nepal Madhesi People’s Rights Forum-Democratic [Bijay Kumar GACHCHADAR u u
Nepal Madhesi People’s Rights Forum-Nepal [Upendra YADAV n n 2007
Nepal Madhesi People’s Rights Forum-Republican [Raj Kishore YADAV u u
Nepal Madhes Samata Party Nepal [Meghraj SAHANI u u
Nepal National Madhes Socialist Party [Sharat Singh BHANDARI u u
Nepal Nepal Pariwar Dal [Ek Nath DHAKAL u u
Nepal Nepal Workers and Peasants Party [Narayan Man BIJUKCHHE n n 1991
Nepal Nepali Congress [Sushil KOIRALA n n 1947
Nepal Nepali Janata Dal [Hari Charan SAH n n 1995
Nepal Nepa Rastriya Party [Keshav Man SHAKYA u u 2008
Nepal Rastriya Janamorcha Nepal [Chitra Bahadur K.C. n n 2008
Nepal Rastriya Janamukti Party [Malwar Singh THAPA u u 1990
Nepal Rastriya Prajatantra Party [Surya Bahadur THAPA n n 1990
Nepal Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal [Kamal THAPA n n 1990
Nepal Sadbhavana Party [Rajendra MAHATO n n 2007
Nepal Samajbadi Janata Party Nepal [Prem Bahadur SINGH u u
Nepal Sanghiya Sadbhavana Party [Anil JHA n n 2011
Nepal Sanghiye Lokatantrik Rastriya Manch [Rukmini CHAUDARY u u
Nepal Terai Madhes Democratic Party [Mahantha THAKUR u u
Nepal Terai Madhes Sadbhavana Party-Nepal [Mahendra YADAV n n
Nepal Tharuhat Terai Party Nepal [Bhanuram CHAUDARY u u
Nepal Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) or UCPN(M) [Pushpa Kamal DAHAL, also known as PRACHANDA n n 1994
Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal or CDA [Sybrand VAN HAERSMA BUMA n n 1980
Netherlands Christian Union or CU [Arie SLOB n n 2001
Netherlands Democrats 66 or D66 [Alexander PECHTOLD n y 1966
Netherlands Green Left or GL [Bram VAN OJIK u u
Netherlands Labor Party or PvdA [Diederik SAMSOM n n 1946
Netherlands Party for Freedom or PVV [Geert WILDERS n n 2006
Netherlands Party for the Animals or PvdD [Marianne THIEME n n 2002
Netherlands People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy or VVD [Mark RUTTE n n 1948
Netherlands Reformed Political Party or SGP [Kees VAN DER STAAIJ n n 1918
Netherlands Socialist Party or SP [Emile ROEMER n y 1971
New Zealand ACT New Zealand [Rodney HIDE n n 1994
New Zealand Green Party [Russel NORMAN and Metiria TUREI y y 1990
New Zealand Jim Anderton’s Progressive Party [James (Jim) ANDERTON n n
New Zealand Mana Party [Hone HARAWIRA n y 1985
New Zealand Maori Party [Tariana TURIA and Dr. Pita SHARPLES n y 2004
New Zealand New Zealand First Party or NZ First [Winston PETERS n n 1993
New Zealand New Zealand Labor Party [Phil GOFF n y 1916
New Zealand New Zealand National Party [John KEY n y 1936
New Zealand United Future New Zealand [Peter DUNNE n n 2000
Nicaragua Alliance for the Republic or APRE [Carlos CANALES n n 2004
Nicaragua Conservative Party or PC [Alejandro BOLANOS Davis u u 1830
Nicaragua Independent Liberal Party or PLI [Indalecio RODRIGUEZ u u 1944
Nicaragua Liberal Constitutionalist Party or PLC [Maria Haydee OSUNA n n 1968
Nicaragua Nicaraguan Liberal Alliance or ALN [Alejandro MEJIA Ferreti n n 2005
Nicaragua Sandinista National Liberation Front or FSLN [Jose Daniel ORTEGA Saavedra n n 1961
Nicaragua Sandinista Renovation Movement or MRS [Ana Margarita VIJIL u u 1995
Niger Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE n n 1991
Niger National Movement for a Society of Development-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU u u 1989
Niger National Union of Independents or UNI [Amadou DJIBO ALI u u
Niger Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE n n 1990
Niger Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU u u
Niger Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mohamed BAZOUM n n 1990
Niger Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama’a or RDP-Jama’a [Hamid ALGABID n n
Niger Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU n n 2004
Niger Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE u u 1999
Norway Center Party or Sp [Trygve Slagsvold VEDUM n y 1920
Norway Christian Democratic Party or KrF [Knut Arild HAREIDE n y 1933
Norway Conservative Party or H [Erna SOLBERG n y 1884
Norway Green Party or MDG [Rasmus NANSSON u u 1988
Norway Labor Party or Ap [Jonas Gahr STOHRE n n 1887
Norway Liberal Party or V [Trine SKEI-GRANDE n y 1884
Norway Progress Party or FrP [Siv JENSEN n n 1973
Norway Socialist Left Party or SV [Audun LYSBAKKEN n y 1975
Pakistan Awami National Party or ANP [Asfandyar Wali KHAN n n 1986
Pakistan Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A n n 1972
Pakistan Balochistan National Party-Hayee Group or BNP-H [Dr. Abdul Hayee BALOCH u u
Pakistan Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL u u
Pakistan Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ n n 1941
Pakistan Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Talal Akbar BUGTI u u
Pakistan Jamiat Ahle Hadith or JAH [Sajid MIR u u
Pakistan Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazl-ur REHMAN u u
Pakistan Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Sami-ul HAQ or JUI-S [Sami ul-HAQ u u
Pakistan Jamiat-i Ulema-i Pakistan or JUP [Abul Khair ZUBAIR u u
Pakistan Tehreek-e-Jafferia Pakistan [Allama Sajid NAQVI u u
Pakistan Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Altaf HUSSAIN n n 1978
Pakistan Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI u u
Pakistan Pakistan Awami Tehrik or PAT [Tahir ul QADRI n n 1989
Pakistan Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed ShahMardan SHAH-II u u
Pakistan Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF u u 1985
Pakistan Pakistan Muslim League-Quaid-i Azam or PML-Q [Chaudhry Shujaat HUSSAIN n n 2002
Pakistan Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI, chairman; Asif Ali ZARDARI, president n y 1967
Pakistan Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN u u
Pakistan Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO u u
Panama Democratic Change or CD [Ricardo MARTINELLI Berrocal n n 1998
Panama Democratic Revolutionary Party or PRD [Juan Carlos NAVARRO Quelquejeu u u 1979
Panama Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement or MOLIRENA [Sergio GONZALEZ-Ruiz u u 1982
Panama Panamenista Party [Juan Carlos VARELA Rodriguez u u
Panama People’s Party or PP [Milton HENRIQUEZ n n 2001
Papa New Guinea National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI u u
Papa New Guinea Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NEMAH n n 2007
Papa New Guinea People’s National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O’NEILL n n 1997
Papa New Guinea People’s Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN n n 1968
Papa New Guinea Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE [Don POYLE n n 2012
Papa New Guinea United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA u u
Paraguay Asociacion Nacional Republicana – Colorado Party or ANR [Lilian SAMANIEGO u u 1887
Paraguay Movimiento Union Nacional de Ciudadanos Eticos or UNACE [Jorge OVIEDO MATTO n n 2002
Paraguay Partido del Movimiento al Socialismo or P-MAS [Camilo Ernesto SOARES Machado u u
Paraguay Partido Democratica Progresista or PDP [Desiree MASI n n 2007
Paraguay Partido Encuentro Nacional or PEN [Fernando CAMACHO Paredes u u
Paraguay Partido Liberal Radical Autentico or PLRA [Miguel ABDON SAGUIER n n 1978
Paraguay Partido Pais Solidario or PPS [Carlos Alberto FILIZZOLA Pallares u u 2000
Paraguay Partido Popular Tekojoja [Sixto PEREIRA u u
Paraguay Patria Querida (Beloved Fatherland Party) or PPQ [Sebastian ACHA n n 2002
Philippines Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA u u 1988
Philippines Lakas ng EDSA-Christian Muslim Democrats or Lakas-CMD [Ferdinand Martin ROMUALDEZ, President n n 2008
Philippines Liberal Party or LP [Joseph Emilio ABAYA, President n n 1945
Philippines Nacionalista Party or NP [Manuel “Manny” VILLAR n n 1907
Philippines Nationalist People’s Coalition or NPC [Eduardo COJUNGCO, Jr. n n 1992
Philippines PDP-Laban [Aquilino PIMENTEL III n n 1982
Philippines People’s Reform Party [Miriam Defensor SANTIAGO n n 1991
Philippines Puwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Force of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA u u 1991
Philippines United Nationalist Alliance or UNA [Toby TIANGCO (acting) n n 2012
Poland Civic Platform or PO [Ewa KOPACZ,chairperson; Rafal GRUPINSKI, parliamentary caucus leader n y 2001
Poland Democratic Left Alliance or SLD [Leszek MILLER, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader n n 1999
Poland German Minority of Lower Silesia or MNSO [Ryszard GALLA, representative u u
Poland Law and Justice or PiS [Jaroslaw KACZYNSKI, chairman; Mariusz BLASZCZAK, parliamentary caucus leader n n 2001
Poland New Right Congress or KNP [Michal MARUSIK, chairman n n 2011
Poland Poland Together or PR [Jaroslaw GOWIN, chairman n n 2013
Poland Polish People’s Party or PSL [Janusz PIECHOCINSKI, chairman; Jan BURY, parliamentary caucus leader n n 1990
Poland Social Democratic Party of Poland or SDPL [Wojciech FILEMONOWICZ, chairman u u 2004
Poland United Poland or SP [Zbigniew ZIOBRO, chairperson n n 2012
Poland Your Movement or TR [Janusz PALIKOT, chairman, parliamentary caucus leader n n 2013
Portugal Democratic and Social Center/Popular Party or CDS/PP [Paulo PORTAS n n 1974
Portugal Social Democratic Party or PPD/PSD [Pedro PASSOS COELHO n y 1974
Portugal Socialist Party or PS [Antonio COSTA n y 1973
Portugal The Left Bloc or BE [Catarina Soares MARTINS u u 1999
Portugal Unitarian Democratic Coalition or CDU [Jeronimo DE SOUSA u u
Puerto Rico National Democratic Party [Roberto PRATS u u
Puerto Rico National Republican Party of Puerto Rico [Carlos MENDEZ u u
Puerto Rico New Progressive Party or PNP [Pedro PIERLUISI n y 1967
Puerto Rico Popular Democratic Party or PPD [Alejandro Garcia PADILLA n y 1938
Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Independence Party or PIP [Ruben BERRIOS Martinez u u 1946
Romania Christian-Democratic National Peasants’ Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU n n 1989
Romania Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN u u 1991
Romania Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN n n 1989
Romania National Liberal Party or PNL [Alina GORGIU and Vasile BLAGA co-presidents n y 1990
Romania National Union for Romania’s Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA n n 2010
Romania New Republic Party or NR [Mihail NEAMTU n n 2012
Romania People’s Party – Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Marin DIACONESCU n n 2011
Romania Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugen TOMAC u u
Romania Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA n n 1990
Russia Communist Party of the Russian Federation or CPRF [Gennadiy ZYUGANOV n n 1993
Russia Liberal Democratic Party of Russia or LDPR [Vladimir ZHIRINOVSKIY n n 1991
Russia United Russia [Dmitriy MEDVEDEV n n 2001
Saint Kits & Nevis Concerned Citizens Movement or CCM [Vance AMORY n n 1987
Saint Kits & Nevis Nevis Reformation Party or NRP [Joseph PARRY n n 1970
Saint Kits & Nevis People’s Action Movement or PAM [Shawn RICHARDS u u 1966
Saint Kits & Nevis People’s Labour Party or PLP [Timothy HARRIS u u
Saint Kits & Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis Labor Party or SKNLP [Dr. Denzil DOUGLAS u u 1946
Samoa Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA’EPA u u 1979
Samoa Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA u u
Samoa Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toalepaiali’i Toesulusulu S’iueva POSE II u u
Samoa Tautua Samoa [Leatinu’u Salole LESA n n 2008
Sao Tome and Principe Force for Change Democratic Movement or MDFM [Fradigue Bandeira Melo DE MENEZES u u
Sao Tome and Principe Independent Democratic Action or ADI [Patrice TROVOADA n n 1994
Sao Tome and Principe Movement for the Liberation of Sao Tome and Principe-Social Democratic Party or MLSTP-PSD [Aurelio MARTINS u u 1960
Sao Tome and Principe Party for Democratic Convergence-Reflection Group or PCD-GR [Leonel Mario D’ALVA n n 1990
Seychelles Democratic Party or DP [Paul CHOW u u 1964
Seychelles People’s Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [James Alix MICHEL n n 1964
Seychelles Popular Democratic Movement or PDM [David PIERRE u u
Seychelles Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN u u
Seychelles Seychelles United Party or SUP [Robert EMESTA u u
Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL n n 1990
Slovakia Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO n n 1999
Slovakia Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK n n 2009
Slovakia Most-Hid or Bridge [Bela BUGAR n n 2009
Slovakia Ordinary People and Independent Personalities or OLaNO [Igor MATOVIC n n 2011
Slovakia Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Pavol FRESO n n 2000
Slovakia Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL n n 2001
Slovakia Nation and Justice – Our Party or NAS [Anna BELOUSOVOVA u u
Slovakia Network or Siet [Radoslav PROCHAZKA
Slovakia New Majority or NOVA [Daniel LIPSIC u u
Slovakia Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef BERENYI n n 1998
Slovakia People’s Party – Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA u u
Slovakia Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO u u 1989
Slovenia Alliance of Alenka Bratusek or ZaAB [Alenka BRATUSEK n n 2014
Slovenia Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC n n 1991
Slovenia Modern Center Pary or SMC [Miro CERAR n n 2014
Slovenia New Slovenia or NSi [Ljudmila NOVAK u u 2000
Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA n n 1989
Slovenia Social Democrats or SD [Dejan ZIDAN n n 1993
Slovenia United Left or ZL (collective leadership) u u
Solomon Islands Democratic Alliance Party or DAP [Steve ABANA u u
Solomon Islands Kadere Party of Solomon Islands or KPSI [Alfred LEGUA u u
Solomon Islands People’s Alliance Party or PAP [Nathaniel WAENA u u 1977
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands People First Party or SIPFP [Jimmie RODGERS u u
Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Party for Rural Advancement or SIPRA [Manasseh MAELANGA u u
Solomon Islands United Democratic Party [Thomas Ko CHAN u u
South Africa African Christian Democratic Party or ACDP [Kenneth MESHOE n n 1993
South Africa African National Congress or ANC [Jacob ZUMA n n 1912
South Africa Congress of the People or COPE [Mosiuoa LEKOTA n n 2008
South Africa Democratic Alliance or DA [Helen ZILLE y y 2000
South Africa Economic Freedom Fighters or EFF [Julius MALEMA n n 2013
South Africa Freedom Front Plus or FF+ [Pieter MULDER n n 1994
South Africa Inkatha Freedom Party or IFP [Mangosuthu BUTHELEZI n n 1975
South Africa National Freedom Party or NFP [Zanele kaMAGWAZA-MSIBI n n 2011
South Africa Pan-Africanist Congress of Azania or PAC [Alton MPHETHI n n 1959
South Africa United Christian Democratic Party or UCDP [Isaac Sipho MFUNDISI n y 1997
South Africa United Democratic Movement or UDM [Bantu HOLOMISA n n 1997
Spain Amaiur [collective leadership u u
Spain Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Anoni ORTUZAR n n 1985
Spain Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez u u 1993
Spain Ciutadans [Albert Rivera n n 2006
Spain Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro u u 2001
Spain Entesa Catalonia de Progress [Carles BONET i Reves u u
Spain Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Xavier VENCE u u 1982
Spain Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres and Dolors CAMATS u u 1987
Spain Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey n n 1989
Spain Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies n n 1931
Spain Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Pedro SANCHEZ n y 1879
Spain Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo n y 1979
Spain Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez n n 2007
Spain United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya u u 1986
Spain Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [Uxue BARKOS n n 2011
Sri Lanka All Ceylon Muslim Congress [Rishad BAITHUTHEEN n n 2008
Sri Lanka Democratic National Alliance, led by General (Retired) Sarath FONSEKA n n 2009
Sri Lanka Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna or JVP [Anura Kumara DISSANAYAKE u u 1965
Sri Lanka Jathika Hela Urumaya or JHU [Patali Champika RANAWAKA n n 2004
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Freedom Party [Maithripala SIRISENA and Mahinda RAJAPAKSA claimed leadership as of January 2015 n n 1951
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka Muslim Congress [Rauff HAKEEM u u 1981
Sri Lanka Tamil National Alliance [R. SAMPANTHAN u u
Sri Lanka United National Party [Ranil WICKREMESINGHE n n 1946
St. Lucia Lucian People’s Movement or LPM [Therold PRUDENT u u
St. Lucia Saint Lucia Labor Party or SLP [Kenny ANTHONY n n 1949
St. Lucia United Workers Party or UWP [Allen CHASTANET u u 1964
St.Vincent and the Grenadines New Democratic Party or NDP [Arnhim EUSTACE u u
St.Vincent and the Grenadines Unity Labor Party or ULP [Ralph GONSALVES u u
Suriname A-Combination (a coalition that includes the General Liberation and Development Party ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK n n
Suriname Basic Party for Renewal and Democracy or PVF [Soede Chand JAIRAM u u
Suriname Democratic Union Suriname or DUS [Japhet DIEKO u u
Suriname National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE u u
Suriname National Union or NU [P. VAN LEEUWAARDE u u
Suriname New Front for Democracy and Development or NF (a coalition made up of the National Party of Suriname or NPS [Runaldo VENETIAAN u u 1946
Suriname Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD u u 1999
Suriname Party for the Permanent Prosperity Republic Suriname or PVRS [Chas MIJNALS u u
Suriname People’s Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur’s or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO u u 1977
Sweden Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF n y 1913
Sweden Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Goran HAGGLUND n y 1964
Sweden Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona) or MP [spokespersons Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN u u 1981
Sweden Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT n n 1917
Sweden Liberal People’s Party (Folkpartiet) or FP [Jan BJORKLUND n y 1934
Sweden Moderate Party (Moderaterna) or M [Anna KINBERG BATRA n y 1904
Sweden Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN n y 1889
Sweden Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON n n 1988
Switzerland Christian Democratic People’s Party (Christlichdemokratische Volkspartei der Schweiz or CVP, Parti Democrate-Chretien Suisse or PDC, Partito Popolare Democratico Svizzero or PPD, Partida Cristiandemocratica dalla Svizra or PCD) [Christophe DARBELLAY n y 1912
Switzerland Conservative Democratic Party (Buergerlich-Demokratische Partei Schweiz or BDP, Parti Bourgeois Democratique Suisse or PBD, Partito Borghese Democratico Svizzero or PBD, Partido burgais democratica Svizera or PBD) [Martin LANDOLT
Switzerland Free Democratic Party or FDP.The Liberals (FDP.Die Liberalen, PLR.Les Liberaux-Radicaux, PLR.I Liberali, Ils Liberals) [Philipp MUELLER
Switzerland Green Liberal Party (Grunliberale or GLP, Parti vert liberale or PVL, Partito Verde-Liberale or PVL, Partida Verde Liberale or PVL) [Martin BAEUMLE
Switzerland Green Party (Gruene Partei der Schweiz or Gruene, Parti Ecologiste Suisse or Les Verts, Partito Ecologista Svizzero or I Verdi, Partida Ecologica Svizra or La Verda) [Adele THORENS and Regula RYTZ u u 1983
Switzerland Social Democratic Party (Sozialdemokratische Partei der Schweiz or SPS, Parti Socialiste Suisse or PSS, Partito Socialista Svizzero or PSS, Partida Socialdemocratica de la Svizra or PSS) [Christian LEVRAT n y 1888
Switzerland Swiss People’s Party (Schweizerische Volkspartei or SVP, Union Democratique du Centre or UDC, Unione Democratica di Centro or UDC, Uniun Democratica dal Center or UDC) [Toni BRUNNER n n 1971
Taiwan Democratic Progressive Party or DPP [TSAI Ing-wen n y 1986
Taiwan Kuomintang or KMT (Nationalist Party) [Eric Chu Li-lun n n 1919
Taiwan New Party [YOK Mu-ming n n 1993
Taiwan Non-Partisan Solidarity Union or NPSU [LIN Pin-kuan n y 2004
Taiwan People First Party or PFP [James SOONG Chu-ye n n 2000
Taiwan Taiwan Solidarity Union or TSU [HUANG Kun-huei n n 2001
Thailand Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukul n n 2008
Thailand Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut u u
Thailand Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin n n 1998
Thailand Matubhum Party (Motherland Party) [ Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin n n 2008
Thailand Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem n n 2011
Thailand Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTIN Charnvirakul n n 2008
Thailand Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva n n 1946
Thailand Prachathipathai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phijarn u u
Thailand Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [acting leader VIROJ Paoin n n 2008
Thailand Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit n n 2011
Thailand Rak Santi Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIL Surachetphong u u
Trinidad and Tobago Congress of the People or COP [Prakash RAMADHAR n n 2006
Trinidad and Tobago Democratic Action Congress or DAC [Hochoy CHARLES n n 2004
Trinidad and Tobago Movement for National Development or MND [Garvin NICHOLAS u u
Trinidad and Tobago National Alliance for Reconstruction or NAR [Lennox SANKERSINGH n n 1985
Trinidad and Tobago People’s National Movement or PNM [Keith ROWLEY n n 1955
Trinidad and Tobago Tobago Organization of the People or TOP [Ashworth JACK u u 2008
Trinidad and Tobago United National Congress or UNC [Kamla PERSAD-BISSESSAR n y 1989
Turkey Anatolia Party or AnaParti [Emine Ulker TARHAN n y 2014
Turkey Center Party [Abdurrahim KARSLI n n 2014
Turkey Democratic Left Party or DSP [Masum TURKER n n 1985
Turkey Democratic Party or DP [Gultekin UYSAL u u 2007
Turkey Democratic Regions Party or DBP [Emine AYNA and Kamuran YUKSEK, co-chairs n y 2014
Turkey Electronic Democracy Party or e-Parti [Emrehan HALICI u u 2014
Turkey Felicity Party or SP [Mustafa KAMALAK n n 2001
Turkey Freedom and Solidarity Party or ODP [Alper TAS and Bilge Seckin CETINKAYA, co-chairs N y 1996
Turkey Great Union Party or BBP [Mustafa DESTICI u u 1993
Turkey Independent Turkey Party or BTP [Haydar BAS n n 2001
Turkey Justice and Development Party or AKP [Ahmet DAVUTOGLU n n 2001
Turkey Nation and Justice Party or MILAD [Idris Naim SAHIN N n 2014
Turkey Nationalist Movement Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI N N 1969
Turkey People’s Democratic Party or HDP [Selahattin DEMIRTAS and Figen YUKSEKDAG, co-chairs N y 2012
Turkey Republican People’s Party or CHP [Kemal KILICDAROGLU n n 1992
Turks and Caicos Islands People’s Democratic Movement or PDM [Oswald SKIPPINGS u u 1975
Turks and Caicos Islands People’s Progressive Party u u 2012
Turks and Caicos Islands Progressive National Party or PNP [Rufus EWING u u 1976
United Kingdom Alliance Party (Northerm Ireland) [David FORD n n 1970
United Kingdom Conservative Party [David CAMERON N N 1834
United Kingdom Democratic Unionist Party or DUP (Northern Ireland) [Peter ROBINSON N n 1971
United Kingdom Green Party of England and Wales or Greens [Natalie BENNETT N Y 1990
United Kingdom Labor Party [Ed MILIBAND N N 1900
United Kingdom Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) [Nick CLEGG N N 1988
United Kingdom Party of Wales (Plaid Cymru) [Leanne WOOD u u 1925
United Kingdom Respect Party [George GALLOWAY u u 2004
United Kingdom Scottish National Party or SNP [Nicola STURGEON N y 1934
United Kingdom Sinn Fein (Northern Ireland) [Gerry ADAMS N n 1970
United Kingdom Social Democratic and Labor Party or SDLP (Northern Ireland) [Alasdair MCDONNELL N Y 1970
United Kingdom Ulster Unionist Party (Northern Ireland) [Mike NESBITT u u 1905
United Kingdom UK Independence Party or UKIP [Nigel FARAGE N n 1993
United States Democratic Party [Debbie Wasserman SCHULTZ Y n 1882
United States Green Party [Brian Bittner u u
United States Libertarian Party [Nicholas SARWARK N N 1971
United States Republican Party [Reince PRIEBUS N N 1854
Uruguay Broad Front (Frente Amplio) – formerly known as the Progressive Encounter/Broad Front Coalition or EP-FA [Monica XAVIER u u 1071
Uruguay Colorado Party (Vamos Uruguay) [Martha MONTANER u u 1836
Uruguay Independent Party [Pablo MIERES n n 2004
Uruguay National Party or Blanco [Luis Alberto HEBER u u 1836
Vanuatu Greens Confederation or GC [Moana CARCASSES Kalosil u u
Vanuatu Iauko Group or IG [Tony NARI u u
Vanuatu Land and Justice Party (Graon mo Jastis Pati) or GJP [Ralph REGENVANU n n 2010
Vanuatu Melanesian Progressive Party or MPP [Barak SOPE u u
Vanuatu Nagriamel movement or NAG [Frankie STEVENS u u
Vanuatu Natatok Indigenous People’s Democratic Party or (NATATOK) or NIPDP [Alfred Roland CARLOT u u
Vanuatu National United Party or NUP [Ham LINI n n 1991
Vanuatu People’s Progressive Party or PPP [Sato KILMAN n n 2001
Vanuatu People’s Service Party or PSP [Don KEN u u
Vanuatu Reunification of Movement for Change or RMC [Charlot SALWAI u u
Vanuatu Union of Moderate Parties or UMP [Serge VOHOR n n
Vanuatu Vanua’aku Pati (Our Land Party) or VP [Edward NATAPEI u u 1970
Vanuatu Vanuatu Democratic Party [Maxime Carlot KORMAN u u
Vanuatu Vanuatu Liberal Democratic Party or VLDP [Tapangararua WILLIE u u
Vanuatu Vanuatu National Party or VNP [Issac HAMARILIU u u
Vanuatu Vanuatu Progressive Development Party or VPDP [Robert Bohn SIKOL u u
Vanuatu Vanuatu Republican Party or VRP [Marcellino PIPITE n n
Venezuela A New Time or UNT [Omar BARBOZA u u 1999
Venezuela Brave People’s Alliance or ABP [Antonio LEDEZMA n n 2000
Venezuela Christian Democrats or COPEI [Roberto ENRIQUEZ u u 1946
Venezuela Coalition of opposition parties — The Democratic Unity Table or MUD [Jesus “Chuo” TORREALBA u u
Venezuela Communist Party of Venezuela or PCV [Oscar FIGUERA u u 1931
Venezuela Democratic Action or AD [Henry RAMOS ALLUP u u 1941
Venezuela Fatherland for All or PPT [Rafael UZCATEGUI n n 1997
Venezuela For Social Democracy or PODEMOS [Ismael GARCIA n n 2002
Venezuela Justice First or PJ [Julio BORGES u u 1992
Venezuela Movement Toward Socialism or MAS [Nicolas SOSA u u 1971
Venezuela Popular Will or VP [Leopoldo LOPEZ n n 2009
Venezuela Progressive Wave or AP [Henri FALCON u u
Venezuela The Radical Cause [Daniel SANTOLO u u 1971
Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela or PSUV [Nicolas MADURO u u 2007
Venezuela Venezuelan Progressive Movement or MPV [Simon CALZADILLA u u
Venezuela Venezuela Project or PV [Henrique SALAS ROMER u u 1998
Zambia Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI u u
Zambia Christian Democratic Party or CDP [Daniel PULE u u
Zambia Forum for Democratic Alternatives or FDA [Ludwig SONDASHI u u
Zambia Fourth Revolution Party or 4R [Eric CHANDA u u
Zambia Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI u u 2001
Zambia Green Party or GREENS [Peter SINKAMBA u u
Zambia Heritage Party or HP [Godfrey MIYANDA u u
Zambia Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA u u
Zambia National Restoration Party or NAREP [Elias CHIPIMO n n 2010
Zambia National Revolution Party or NRP [Cosmo MUMBA u u
Zambia Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU n n 2001
Zambia People’s Party [Mike MULONGOTI u u
Zambia Republican Progressive Party or RPP [James LUKUKU u u
Zambia United National Independence Party or UNIP [Tilyenji KAUNDA n n
Zambia United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA n n 1998
Zambia Zambia Direct Democracy Movement or ZDDM [Edwin SAKALA u u
A Just Russia [Sergey MIRONOV n n 2006

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